History of Bihar

The history of Bihar is as old as the history itself though badly degraded and distorted at present, the vintage angle of Bihar represent an all together different story when it was a center of learning literature, arts, philosophy and science. Bihar or Magadha had its capital at Patliputra which was house to some of the greatest Vedic scholars of that time.

The famous Nalanda and Vikramshila universities of Bihar were fine examples of education portal and hub for learning and set example and standards for other centers for academics of that time as well. It was during this time that Chanakya wrote his principles of diplomacy in his book called “Kautilya arthashastra” the illustrations described in the book were so practical and potent that Chandra Gupta Maurya the first ruler of Mauryan dynasty was not only able to overthrow his predecessor Mahapadma Nanda of Nanda dynasty but also ruled Indian territories spanning from Hindukush mountains in the east to extremities of modern boundaries of Afghanistan in the west.

The term Bihar originates from "VIHARA" (monastery) as hundreds of monasteries have been excavated because of its association to the Buddha’s life. It is thought that about 2500 years ago, the Buddha is said to have achieved enlightenment at Bodh Gaya under a tree, what is now known as the "Bodhi Tree". Currently the Mahabodhi Temple marks the exact location of Buddha’s enlightment.

Mahavira was also born on this ancient kingdom of Vaishali where he achieved perfect enlightment. The author of the Hindu epic; The Ramayana, Maharishi Valmiki also lived in Ancient Bihar. The birthplace of Sita Mata is a village calld "Punaura", located at Sitamarhi. Guru Goind Singh was born at Patna Sahib marked by a glorious Gurudwara called the the "Takht Sri Patna Sahib" built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Vishnupad Temple (12km, at Gaya): In 1787 Queen Ahilya Bai built the Vishnu temple on the banks of river Falgu. The temple has some great architecture and design which attracts devotees and tourists alike. A 30-meter high octagonal tower overshadows this temple.

Chandragupta Maurya established the Mauryan Empire in 322 BC by overthrowing the Nanda dynasty and also liberated the trans-indus region from Macedonian occupation by defeating Seleucus-I of Alexander's army.

The Mauryan Empire (220 years later) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, is considered the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. Magadh or ancient Bihar had its capital in Patliputra (Patna) that stretched from Afghanistan to most of the South and the east coast of India. After the famous Kalinga (Orrisa) war Ashoka the Great ended the military expansion of the empire and converted to Buddhism. It is considered as the greatest empire to rule the Indian subcontinent.

Ashoka was the last great king of the Mauryan Empire. His successors were of no importance and in 184 BC the last of the Mauryan kings was assassinated ending first empire of India originating from Bihar.

After the Mauryan dynasty, Pushyamitra established the Sunga dynasty that has a line of ten rulers of Magadh. It was under the rule of the Sungas that Patanjali's Mahabhashya was written. This shows that the history of Bihar was indeed the cradle of Indian civilization in terms administration, religion, art and literature.

After some regional kings of less importance Chandragupta (not Chandragupta Maurya) established the Gupta Empire (A.D. 320-550) and united North India again with its capital at Patliputra. It was during the Gupta period that Sanskrit language and literature were at its peak, literature on medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics were written.

Learn more:

PatnaHistory of Patna - The legend of Patna - Sonepur mela - Historical facts on Bihar - Bihar History - Ashoka - Meaning of the word Vihara - History of - Ancient Magadha - Bihar at the time of Buddha - Nalanda University - Bodh Gaya - Historical Mahavira of Magadha

Bihar in a nutshell

The term Bihar comes from "Vihar" meaning monastery as hundreds of monasteries have been excavated here due its connection to the Buddha's life. It is thought that about 2500 years ago, the Buddha obtained illumination at Bodh Gaya under a tree, what is now known as the famous "Bodhi Tree". An ancient Bodhi tree there is thought to have originated from the original tree. Presently the location of the Mahabodhi Temple marks the exact site of Buddha's enlightment.

Religion from Bihar

Mahavira was also born on this ancient realm of Vaishali where he achieved supreme enlightment. The author of the Hindu epic; The Ramayana, the great Rishi Valmikialso lived in Ancient Bihar. The birth location of Sita Mata is a village called "Punaura", situated atSitamarhi district in Bihar. Gurugovind Singh was born at Patna Sahib noticeable by a magnificent Gurudwara called the the "Takht Sri Patna Sahib" built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The famous Vishnupad Temple (12km, at Gaya) was built by Queen Ahilya Bai on the banks of river Falgu. The temple has some grand structural design and that attracts devotees and tourists alike. It is considered to have the footprint of lord Vishnu.

Ancient history of Bihar

Chandragupta Maurya founded the Mauryan Empire in 322 B.C. by overthrowing the Nanda dynasty and also liberated the trans-Indus area from Greek occupation by defeating Seleucus-I of Alexander's army. It was this very region that stood up to the foreign invaders of ancient ages and united whole of south Asia under one banner. The Mauryan Empire (220 years later) ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, is considered the major and most significant political and military kingdom of ancient India. Magadha or ancient Bihar had its capital in Patliputra (present day Patna) that stretched from Afghanistan to most of the South and the east coast of India. After the well-known Kalinga (Orrisa) conflict Ashoka the Great ended the military growth of the empire and converted to Buddhism. It is considered as the greatest empire to rule the Indian subcontinent. Tribute goes to Ashoka for the establishment of Buddhism in China and Sri Lanka. Ashoka was the last great king of the Mauryan Empire. His successors were of no importance and in 184 B.C. the last of the Mauryan kings was assassinated ending first empire of India derives from Bihar.

Following the Mauryan dynasty, Pushyamitra founded the Sunga dynasty that has a line of ten rulers of Magadh. It was under the ruling of the Sungas that Patanjali's Mahabhashya was composed. Writer Vatsyayana composed the famous Kama Sutra (the text on sexual union) here at Patliputra. There is a 17th century Shiva temple in Bihar dedicated to the propagation of Kamasutra, the ancient Sanskrit treatise on the art of love. This shows that the history of Bihar was indeed the cradle of Indian civilization in terms government, faith, medicine art and writing. After some local kings of less significance Chandragupta (not Chandragupta Maurya) established the Gupta Empire (A.D. 320-550) and integrated North India again with its headquarters at Patliputra. It was during the Gupta phase that Sanskrit language and literature were at its peak, literature on medicine, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics were written.

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Comment by MG MORE on September 23, 2013 at 8:01pm

"After the well-known Kalinga (Orrisa) conflict Ashoka the Great ended the military growth of the empire and converted to Buddhism. "It is wrong to say that Ashoka the Great Converted to Buddhism. He was already Buddhist, after visualising the massacre of Kalinga battle he started practicing real Buddhist teaching in his kingdom.

" Ashoka was the last great king of the Mauryan Empire. His successors were of no importance and in 184 B.C. the last of the Mauryan kings was assassinated ending first empire of India derives from Bihar."

It is the fact that the last Mauryan king the grandson of Ashoka, King Brahadrat  was assassinated by his own Commander Pusyamitra Shrung and took over the kingdom on the instructions of his guru Patanjali. He ordered that whoever bring a head of Buddhist Monk he would get 100 gold coins in return.  The true democracy was made into slavery of today's citizens of Bihar  in 550 AD. Thus total kingdom of PATALIPUTRA right from Afganistan to Burma was made into Hindu kingdom, the state of slavery till today.  I had visited total Bihar right from Gorakhpur to Lumbini, Nepal etc. the state of common man is not less than slaves since the, It is pathetic state of affairs that even today's Govt and its people and leaders does not the real History of Great Pataliputra the Capital of Ashoka dynasties like Chandragupta Maurya, Nanda, Harshavardhan etc.  The 9o% of real History of India is hidden under the earth only 10% is visible on surface of India.  The Archeological Survey of India's report says if each and every town is dug, you will find at least one or two Viharas, Stupas, Caves of Buddhist culture. 

Comment by sumit kamal on August 29, 2012 at 9:32pm

as our history, world knows bihar is guru of education

Comment by Ravi shankar on March 29, 2012 at 10:22am

dear frnds,

                 one thing that i tell u d meaning of bihar . in ancient days bihar means that anand .... people came bihar for relaxation, enjoy..........

Comment by lucky on March 26, 2012 at 3:26pm

we love my Bihar ...........................

Comment by GOPI KANTA GHOSH on March 21, 2012 at 5:31pm

Bihar is pride of human civilization

Comment by RAM PARVESH SHARMA on January 12, 2012 at 4:43pm

hi

koi hai jo hum se bhi baat kare

 

 

Comment by Rohit Kumar Sinha on January 12, 2012 at 1:38pm

proud to be Bihari

Comment by Fahad Akhtar on November 26, 2011 at 7:42pm

Dear friends, If we want our supercop Mr. shivdeep lande back, please write to CM Nitish Kumar at

http://gov.bih.nic.in/Write2CM.asp

Listen, larger the number of e-mails received, more will be the chance for his coming back. Please spread this Patnaits.

 

Comment by RAM PARVESH SHARMA on November 1, 2011 at 5:23pm

hi garv se bolo hum hai bihari

jo 100 par bhi hai bhari

jai hind

Comment by Sonu Sharma on October 5, 2011 at 11:06am
Bihar is one of the most beautiful place in INDIA........
Comment by Vivek Singh on September 14, 2011 at 8:49pm
Comment by dewantkumar on August 25, 2011 at 9:01am
yes this is the nice place.bihar ka matlab hai sair ya ghumne k jagah.yes this is the nice place.bihar ka matlab hai sair ya ghumne k jagah.
Comment by dewantkumar on August 25, 2011 at 8:58am
yes this is the nice place.bihar ka matlab hai sair ya ghumne k jagah.
Comment by Sanju Sah on August 19, 2011 at 10:38pm
really our Bihar is a Great land.
Comment by Vikash on July 17, 2011 at 12:48am

Dear friends write to me. I am looking forward to make lots of friends here and learn and share with you out there.

Comment by Vikash on July 17, 2011 at 12:46am
I just joined youBihar and i am learning a lot about this state. History of bihar is very rich and powerful. Will try to learn more about this great history.
Comment by Shalu Sharma on July 5, 2011 at 4:51pm
@Chandan. Wikipedia se ya idhar udhar se copy and paste karne se koi phaida nahi hai.
Comment by Saquib Ashraf on May 15, 2011 at 7:32pm
Just Newly joined this group, and i think this social site will provide me more place to know my Bihar better than before
Comment by Jitendra Kumar Yadav on January 24, 2011 at 5:23pm
History of Bihar
                                             Ancient Times
The land mass currently known as Bihar is very ancient. The name is
derived from “Vihara” – a land of monasteries. Hindu, Buddhist, Jain,
Muslim, and Sikh shrines abound in this ancient land. Earliest myths and
legends of Hinduism are associated with Bihar. Sita, the Consort of Lord
Rama, daughter of King Janak was born in Sitamarhi. The ancient kingdom
of Janak called Vidaha consisted of present day districts of Muzaffarpur,
Sitamarhi, Samastipur, Madhubany, and Darbhanga. The original author of
the Hindu epic – The Ramayana – Maharishi Valmiki lived in Valmikinager,
a small town in West Champaran.
It was here in Bodhgaya, under a banyan tree, the Bodh tree, that Prince
Gautama attained supreme knowledge to become Buddha, the enlightened
one. Most of the major events of his life, like enlightenment, last sermon, and
nirvana (death) happened in Bihar. The great religion of Buddhism was born
here, and Bodhgaya is one of the most important and sacred Buddhist
pilgrimage centers in the world.
The Lord Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, was born at Vaishali and
attained nirvana (death) at Pawapuri, near Rajgir. The tenth and the last
guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobindt Singh was born in 1666 in Patna Sahib. A
lovely and majestic Gurudwara – the Harmandir, built to commemorate his
memory, is one of the holiest places of worship for Sikhs. The ancient
kingdom of Magadh and of Licchavis, around 7-8 Century B.C. produced
rulers who devised a system of administration that truly is progenitor of the
modern art of state-craft and of the linkage of state-craft with economics.
Magadh rose to glory during Guptas (4th and 5th centuries A.D.) and produced
Kaultilya, the author of Arthashastra, the first treaties of the modern science
of Economics and Chanakya, the advisor to the Magadh king, Chandragupta
Maurya. Chanakya produced the first Indian treaties on state-craft and
politics. Patliputra (ancient name of Patna, the Mauryan capital) was
established by King Ajatshatru around 5th century B.C. at the confluence of
the rivers Sone and Ganga.
The Maurya Emperor Ashok (234-198 B.C) was the first to formulate firm
tenets for the government of a people. These edicts inscribed on stone pillars
were planted across his kingdom extending to almost all of the undivided
India. Ashok was responsible also for the widespread proselytization of
people in Buddhism.
Nalanda, the world’s first seat of higher learning, a Monastic University was
established during the Gupta period and flourished from the 5th to the 11th
century. The University had 9 million books and 2000 teachers to impart
knowledge to 10,000 students from all over the Buddhist world. Lord
Buddha himself taught here and Hieun Tsang, the 7th century Chinese
traveler, was a student. Ongoing excavations have uncovered temples,
monasteries, lecture halls and charred library burned by Mughal invaders.
Medieval Times
The glorious history of Bihar lasted until around the 8th century Gupta
Period. It was followed up by the Palas of Bengal, who ruled until 1197,
when the Mughal period began. In Medieval Times, Bihar lost its prestige as
the political and cultural center of India. The Mughal period, which lasted
from the 12th to the 17th century, was a period of unremarkable provincial
administration from Delhi. The only remarkable person of these times in
Bihar was Sher Shah, an Afghan whose rule in the 16th century extended all
the way to the Punjab. His mausoleum is located in Sasaram.
Modern Times
The British acquired Bihar in 1764 in the Battle of Buxar and ruled until
India
Comment by Arshad on December 9, 2010 at 7:52pm
Now Nitish Kumar should take good decision about electricity. i hope that nitish kumar will be solve the electricity problem of Bihar in coming year.

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